Persistent depressive disorders (Dysthymia) is a form of chronic depression disorder and is also called dysthymia it is a continuous long-term (chronic) form of depression. You may lose interest in normal daily activities, feel hopeless, lack productivity, and have low self-esteem and an overall feeling of inadequacy. These feelings last for years and may significantly interfere with your relationships, school, work and daily activities. Continuous feelings of deep sadness and hopelessness.
CAUSES: – a chemical imbalance in the brain, a family history of the condition, a history of other mental health conditions, such as anxiety or bipolar disorder, stressful or traumatic life events, such as the loss of a loved one or financial problems, chronic physical illness, such as heart disease or diabetes and physical brain trauma, such as a concussion.
SYMPTOMS: – persistent feelings of sadness and hopelessness, sleep problems, low energy, a change in appetite, difficulty concentrating, and indecisiveness, a lack of interest in daily activities, decreased productivity, poor self-esteem, a negative attitude and avoidance of social activities
DIAGNOSIS: – This manual is published by the American Psychiatric Association. The PDD symptoms listed in the DSM-5 include: a depressed mood almost every day for most of the day, having a poor appetite or overeating, difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, low energy or fatigue, low self-esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions and feelings of hopelessness.
TREATMENT: – Medications:- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine (Prozac) and sertraline (Zoloft), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), such as amitriptyline (Elavil) and amoxapine (Asendin), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), such as desvenlafaxine (Pristiq) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)
Therapy: – express your thoughts and feelings in a healthy way, cope with your emotions, adjust to a life challenge or crisis, identify thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that trigger or aggravate symptoms, replace negative beliefs with positive ones, regain a sense of satisfaction and control in your life and set realistic goals for yourself.
Lifestyle Changes:- exercising at least three times per week, eating a diet that largely consists of natural foods, such as fruits and vegetables, avoiding drugs and alcohol, seeing an acupuncturist, taking certain supplements, including fish oil, practicing yoga, tai chi, or meditation and writing in a journal