What is Depression?
Depression (major depressive disorder) is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel the way you think and how you act. Fortunately, it is also treatable. Depression causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s ability to function at work and at home.
o Biochemistry: Differences in certain chemicals in the brain may contribute to symptoms of depression.
o Genetics: Depression can run in families. For example, if one identical twin has depression, the other has a 70 percent chance of having the illness sometime in life.
o Personality: People with low self-esteem, who are easily overwhelmed by stress, or who are generally pessimistic appear to be more likely to experience depression.
o Environmental factors: Continuous exposure to violence, neglect, abuse or poverty may make some people more vulnerable to depression.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:–
• Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood
• Feelings of hopelessness, or pessimism
• Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness
• Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities and appetite/ weight Loss
• Decreased energy or fatigue
• Moving or talking more slowly
• Feeling restless or having trouble sitting still
• Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
• Difficulty sleeping, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping
• Thoughts of death or suicide, or suicide attempts
• Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems without a clear physical cause and/or that do not ease even with treatment
• Life events: These include bereavement, divorce, work issues, relationships with friends and family, financial problems, medical concerns, or acute stress.
• • Personality: Those with less successful coping strategies, or previous life trauma are more susceptible.
• • Genetic factors: Having a first-degree relatives with depression increases the risk.
• • Childhood trauma.
• • Some prescription drugs: These include corticosteroids, some beta-blockers, interferon, and other prescription drugs.
• • Abuse of recreational drugs: Abuse of alcohol, amphetamines, and other drugs are strongly linked to depression.
• • A past head injury.
• • Having had one episode of major depression: This increases the risk of a subsequent one.
• • Chronic pain syndromes: These and other chronic conditions, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease make depression more likely
• Support, ranging from discussing practical solutions and contributing stresses, to educating family members.
• Psychotherapy, also known as talking therapies, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).
• Drug treatment, specifically antidepressants.
• Electro convulsive Therapy